Using Rust for Virtualization: A Comprehensive Guide

Using Rust for Virtualization: A Comprehensive Guide

If you’re looking for a modern, practical, and safe language for your virtualization projects, Rust is the perfect choice.

Rust, an open-source language funded by Mozilla, aims to deliver both performance and safety without needing a garbage collector. With a clear syntax and developer-focused features, it's known to offer safety, concurrency, and practicality. This guide is aimed at providing a comprehensive understanding of how Rust can be used for virtualization.

Understanding Rust and Virtualization

What is Rust?

Rust is a systems programming language that aims to provide memory safety, concurrency, and performance with zero runtime or garbage collector. It achieves this by a combination of compile-time checks to enforce object lifetimes and borrowing, and runtime checks to ensure that other safety conditions are met.

What is Virtualization?

Virtualization refers to the process of creating a software-based, or virtual, representations of things rather than actual physical ones. In computing, virtualization means to create a virtual version of a device or resource, such as a storage device, network or even an operating system where the framework divides the resource into one or more execution environments.

When we talk about 'virtualization in Rust', it means using Rust based tools and frameworks to facilitate the process of virtualization.

Why Rust for Virtualization?

Many traditional languages used for virtualization, such as C and C++, lack certain safety features and can lead to issues with concurrency, memory leaks, and null pointer references. Rust offers the following advantages:

  • Memory Safety: Unlike others, Rust ensures memory safety by using compile-time reference counting.

  • Concurrency: Rust provides a way to avoid data races through its 'fearless concurrency' model.

  • System Performance: Rust’s syntax and semantics offer natural expressions of high-level abstractions, resulting in faster system performance.

  • Null and Buffer Overflow Safety: Rust's complex compile-time checks eliminate null and buffer overflow problems during runtime.

  • Libraries: Rust provides excellent libraries for most virtualization tasks including Virtual Machine Monitoring (VMM), device and system level virtualization.

Rust in Action: Virtualization Use-cases

Next, let's look at how Rust can be employed with two well-known virtualization technologies: QEMU and Firecracker.


Firecracker is an open-source virtualization technology that is purpose-built for creating and managing secure, multi-tenant container and function-based services.

Rust has been heavily used in the development of Firecracker due to its focus on safety without sacrificing speed or functionality. Firecracker runs workloads in lightweight micro virtual machines (microVMs) that offer enhanced security and workload isolation over traditional VMs, while enabling speed and resource efficiency. The Firecracker VMM is built in Rust and leverages the performance, security, and integrations provided by the Rust-VMM project.


QEMU is a well-known virtualization technology with its origins in emulating full computer systems, allowing it to run a variety of different operating systems.

A project called qemu-rust exists which completely replaces QEMU's traditional C/C++ based device model with a Rust-driven one. The project's ultimate goal is to fully replace QEMU's device model.

Q&A: Rust and Virtualization

1. How does Rust ensure safety in virtualization projects?

Rust adopts strict compile-time ownership checks with zero-cost abstractions to ensure safety. For concurrency, it follows a 'fearless concurrency' model to prevent data races. In case of memory safety, Rust uses compile-time reference counting to make sure that references are valid and data is initialized before use.

2. Is Rust performance comparable to C/C++ in virtualization?

Yes, Rust's performance is comparable to C/C++ and in some areas, it even outperforms due to better abstractions at no cost. The language is designed to offer high-level abstractions at zero cost, making it competitive with C/C++ in terms of performance.

3. Are there any prominent projects using Rust for virtualization?

Yes, Firecracker, an open-source virtualization technology developed by AWS, uses Rust. The qemu-rust project also utilizes Rust for replacing qemu's device model.

4. Is Rust mature enough for large scale virtualization projects?

While Rust is a relatively young language compared to C/C++, its robust compile-time checks, safety, concurrency, and performance features make it a strong contender for large scale virtualization projects.


Rust heralds a new era in the domain of systems programming and virtualization. Its focus on safety, speed, and concurrency make it an attractive choice for virtualization projects. Organizations like AWS have adopted Rust in building their virtualization technologies, testifying to the practicality and effectiveness of Rust. If you are planning to venture into the realm of virtualization, it is worth considering Rust - a language designed for the developers of the future.